Fusion Isn't Fusion
The new atomic model provides insights into a number of processes typically referred to as "fusion", including hot fusion, solar fusion, explosive sellar fusion and even cold fusion. Many processes typically described as "fusion" may not actually involve the direct joining (fusion) of two positively charged nuclei.

Solar Fusion

Solar processes in the core region producing Helium from Hydrogen may, instead of fusion, be better described by neutron formation from de-excited hydrogen followed by a series of neutron captures, as follows: 
H(n<<1) -> n
H(n<1) + n -> D(n<1)
D(n<1) + n -> T(n<1) 
T(n<1) + n -> H4(n<1)  -> He4

Cold Fusion

Heat and transmutation observations under low energy conditions that have been described as "cold fusion" are perhaps better described as:
  • (i) formation of de-excited hydrogen states, (exothermic)
  • (ii) neutron formation, (endothermic-?)
  • (iii) neutron capture. (exothermic or endothermic-?)

Explosive Fusion

Probably involves the collapse of nucleons into a meson plasma, followed by re-formation of new nuclei.


Perhaps results from the formation of a black hole (super nucleus) within the core of a star due to gravitational collapse of electron orbitals.  Black hole formation creates a void space, which causes the rapid collapse of the remainder of the star. A meson plamsa is formed by this collapse, and new nuclei are created during the high energy explosion that follows.

Controlled (Hot) Fusion

Particle tracking in high energy colliders demonstrates the impact of two positively charged nuclei resulting in the formation of one positively charged Helium nucleus.  Does the fusion of two positive nuclei actually first require collapse into a local meson plasma? If this is the case, then it can perhaps be understood why practically the fusion of hydrogen isotopes is very difficult to achieve?