Black Holes
John Mitchell (1783-84) is generally credited to have first documented the proposed the existance of large super massive objects from which light could not escape.

Twentieth century concepts of black holes, based on Einstein's Relativity theory, have been largely mathematically based and have typically included a central "singularity" where "space-time curvature becomes infinite".  The "singularity" concept has given black holes a "mystical nature", that has strongly challenged our intuitive perspectives on the universe.

With the re-emergence of background energy theory and superseeding of Einstein's relativity theories, new explations to explain the nature of black holes are emerging.  

Gulko (2016) analysed the structural morphologies and spatial distributions of gamma ray emissions from black holes and "neutron stars" (noting that they are not actually comprised on neutrons), and provided an explantion based on "super-nuclei".  The Gulko model identifies black holes as rapidly rotating "super-nuclei" in a vortex configuration.  Mass is accumulated "equitorially" and is also ejected in polar jets.  The lack of light emissions from back holes is considered to be due to very low background energy density in the region surrounding the black hole, inadequate for the transmission of light. "Neutron stars" are considered to be similar, but not rotating with sufficient velocity to create a stabilising equitorial low background energy region, and consequently are subject to de-stabilisation as a nova or supernova explosion.  

The new atomic model is consistent with the proposed existance of massive "super-nuclei".  
"Super Nuclei"
Copyright S. Brink.
How Big is a "Super-Nuclei"?

A "super-nuclei" with mass equivalent to the earth would fit into a sphere roughly the size of a large football ground, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground.

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References:
Gulko, A. G., 2016, ​​​​​​​The Common Mechanism of Blackholes and Supernovas
Infinite Energy Magazine, Volume 21, Issue 125, January/Febuary 2016.