Excess Heat

Excess heat from far infrared stimulation of metals that have been electrolytically loaded with hydrogen has been demonstrated.

A simple low cost experiment has been developed to demonstrate excess heat. The experiment can be easily replicated and is suitable for secondary or tertiary education cirriculums.​​


Physics

The source of the excess heat from hydrogen and deuterium electrolysis experiments has been investigated by many researchers for almost 30 years, but no universally accepted theory has been developed to explain observations.

Current theories include:

(i) Super-chemical.
Energy is released from hydrogen electron orbital transitions to de-excited states, (Mills, 2016).

(ii) Neutron Capture Reactions
These processes are generally typically considered to involve neutron formation and capture by another nucleus releasing energy, (Widom & Larsen, 2006).

(iii) "Combined System" Energy Process
Subtle Atomics has identified a new "Combined System" energy process which integrates super-chemical and neutron capture processes.

S. Brink ~2013 ​​
S. Brink 
​Experiment, photography and graphics by Subtle Atomics.
Experiment

Method: Load a 316 stainless steel plate with hydrogen by electrolysis of a hydroxide solution.  Dry plates.  Apply far infrared light.  

Observations:  Cathode plate heats up much faster than anode plate and controls.

Conclusion:  Infrared stimulation of Hydrogen loaded metals can produce excess heat.

​​ Acknowledgements:  Observations are consistent with excess heat observations reported by many researchers, as documented in the Journal  of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (2007-2017) and elsewhere.
References: 

Mills, R., 2016, Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics
Self Published, http://brilliantlightpower.com/book/


Widom, A., Larsen, L., 2006, Ultra Low Momentum Neutron Catalyzed Nuclear Reactions on Metallic Hydride Surfaces.
The European Physical Journal C. Bibcode:2006EPJC...46..107W.

doi:10.1140/epjc/s2006-02479-8.  Archived from the original on 2nd May 2005.
https://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0505026.pdf  [Freely accessible]
International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, 2007-2017,
 Journal of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, 
http://www.iscmns.org/idxjcmns.htm

Excess Heat from a Hydrogen Loaded Cathode Plate Under Far Infrared Light Stimulation 
  1. Experimental Setup
    This video show the setup of the far infrared heat lamp, 316 SS plates and thermometers.
  2. Experimental Observations
    This video shows temperature observations after stimulation with far infrared light.
S. Brink ~2013​​​
S. Brink ~2013 ​​
Note: First temperature reading in the Experimental Observations  video is actually from the anode (positive) and the second temperature reading is from the cathode (negative).  Audio is back-to-front on this.
Detailed Experimental Proceedure 
 
A Low Cost, High Reliability Excess Heat Demonstration Experiment 

Introduction
Excess heat from hydrogen loaded cathodes is an excellent 'first experiment" for anyone wishing to delve into the mysteries of emerging physics and energy technologies.  The experiment was developed after more than 10 years of following and researching emerging new energy technologies, and offers a practical means to reliably demonstrate excess heat and energy effects at low cost.  All materials and equipment for the experiment can be purchased for approximately $300-$500US.  

Methodology
Three 316 stainless steel plates, such as lighting cover plates (approx. 50x100mm, or 2x4 inches),  are placed in a distilled water bath, separated by at least 25mm or 1 inch.  A small amount of hydroxide (as CaOH, NaOH or KOH) is added to the water, say 20 grams.   One of the stainles steel plates is connected to the positive terminal of a low voltage power source (6V, or a bit more) and another to the negative terminal.  The third plate is not connect to the power source and is used as a control. Once turned on, bubbles should continually form on the two plates connected to the power source (hydrogen gas forms on the positive plate and oxygen gas forms on the negative plate).  

After operating for approximately 24 hours, the power is turned off and the three plates allowed to air dry.  The three plates, together with a fourth plate that has not been placed in the solution, are then evenly placed under a far infrared lamp.  The heat lamp needs to emit broadly within the far infrared spectrum.  For this reason the TDP brand heat lamp was selected for initial experiments, and performed well.  Plates are left under the heat lamp for up to one hour and temperature is regularly recorded for each plate using an infrared thermometer, if available, (or otherwise oven thermometers can be attached to the plates).  

Results
The temperate of the plate connected to the positive terminal rises more quickly than the other three plates, and sustains a higher steady state temperature.  At times this plate was observed to be 25 to 30 degrees celcius hotter than the other three plates.  Results were consistently observed.  Interesting similar results were even observed when the plates were stored for a number of weeks after initial trial, then re-exposed to far infrared radiation.

Discussion
Excess heat on a positive electrode in hydroxide solutions have been observed in the past by many early cold fusion / Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) researchers.  This experiment shows similar results.  The mechanism for the excess heat has been the subject of much discussion.  Quite possibly excess heat results from a combination of both electron orbital transitions to below ground state (de-excitation) and elemental transmutation/fusion mechanisms.  

Conclusions
It is hoped that this experiment will offers educators and researchers an opportunity to further explore excess heat energy effects at low cost allowing further ongoing contributions to be made by many in physics and low carbon energy technologies.

Safety Notes
Hydroxides are caustic so can cause skin and eye damage. As such hydroxides must be handled with care using appropriate safety proceedures.  No measurable alpha, beta or ionising gamma radiation has been previously observed from this experiment, or other similar experiments, but theory suggests that very low levels of extreme UV and/or x-rays could be emitted.  Adverse radiation effects have been previously observed in other types of LENR experimentation, such as jet cavitation fusion by Mark LeClair of Nanospire. 



Reference:  ​​​​ nanospireinc.com/Fusion.html
Excess Light