A new understanding of the nature of electrons is developed from the Subtle Atomics "wave-particle equivalence" principle. Similar to classical models (Uhenbeck and Goudsmit, 1925, Mills, 2016), electrons are recognised as spherical/ellipsoidal electro-magnetic wave shell structures much larger than the nucleus.  The new model contrasts with traditional/quantum approaches that typically identify electrons as "point particles" in spherical orbits.

Based on "wave-particle equivalence" particle sizes are expected to be directly related to mass with more massive (higher energy) particles being smaller, and less massive (lower energy) particles being larger.

A linear "wave-particle equivalence" relationship would mean that electrons are around 1,840 times larger than nucleons, in accordance with the mass ratios of electrons to nucleons.  The size of free, unbound electrons may be close to this size. 

The observed size of atomic and molecular electron orbitals varies considerably, but is generally even larger than a inverse linear relationship might suggest. 

The geometry of bonding electrons (i.e. elliptical rather than spherical) is another example of how electro-magnetic interactions can modify electron shape.

In the new model, electrons are defined as having circular orbits that rotate, forming spherical or elliptical structures.
Excited states, which are larger, are modelled as having more oscillations per rotation. The model is also consistent with the potential existance of de-excited electrons with total energies less than ground state electrons.  De-excited electrons are modelled as having less oscillations per rotation than ground state.

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"The Subtle Atomic model identifies a varying electromagnetic distribution that is at it's maximum at the "radius", in contrast with the Mills model that proposes a thin continuous shell of charge."

Electron Extents for Atomic Hydrogen

Bohr Radius:  53,000fm

"Wave-particle equivalence" Radius:

The observed atomic electron extents are much larger than expected by "wave-particle equivalence". 

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Copyright S. Brink.
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Electron Ground State, n=1
First Excited State, n=2 
First De-excited State, n=1/2
Twice the number of osscilations/rotation
Half the number of osscillations/rotation
If Below Ground State Electrons are Possible, Why Don't Electrons Transition to these States Under "Normal Terrestrial Conditions?

Under terrestrial conditions (i.e. on earth) electrons are generally observed as ground state electrons, not as de-excited electons.  Why is this? Reaction thermodynamics suggests that electrons should favour transiton to these lower energy states, if they do exist.

To understand why most electrons are at "ground state" requires a recognition of an interaction between background energy and mass. In the new model, particles, including electrons, can continually absorb background energy, transitioning to higher and higher quantised energy states.  De-excited electrons (n<1) can transition to less de-excited states, then to ground state (n=1). Ground state electrons can transition to various excited states (n>1). 

Ground state electrons are stable and de-excited electrons are also expected to be stable.  Energy states above ground state are unstable, decaying by photon emission to a lower energy states.

Consequently the new model identifies that electrons naturally absorb background energy, transitioning to the highest stable energy state. Under terrestrial conditions, the highest stable energy state is ground state (n=1).

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Bonding Electron Pair with Double Poles
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Excited and De-excited Electron Sizes

The Rydberg Equation describes transition energies between ground state electrons (n=1) and excited states (n=2,3,4,...). Mills (2016) proposes an extension of the Rydberg equation, describing de-excited states in terms of fractional n values with electron sizes proportional to n values.

The Subtle Atomics electron model proposes a new variable, k, with electron sizes proportional to k values. Excited state sizes are consistent with the Rydberg model, but de-excited state sizes differ from those proposed by Mills.

Based on "wave-particle equivalence" a "primary" electron state is identified, defined as an electron having one osscilation per rotation.  For hydrogen the "primary state" is equivalent to n=1/32 or k = -5.
Have De-excited Electrons Been Observed?

Experimental evidence of de-excited electron states was perhaps was first reported in 1991, (Bush et alia), following theoretical proposal by R. Mills in around 1986.

Classical theory presented by Mills provides new insights into modern physics, but has a number of significant limitations, particularly as it does not consider the potential for electro-magnetic interactions between electrons and the nucleus.


The positron is perhaps an example of a particle with similar mass to an electron (~511KeV), but displaying "positive" rather than "negative" behaviour in response to an electric field.  

The observed difference in "charge" behaviour is expected to be due to a different electromagnetic field configuration compared to the electron.  For example the positron field may be more "toroidal compared to the electron field which is expected to be more spherical.

The existance of electrons rather than positrons under normal conditions is consistent with the electron magnetic field configuration being stable, whereas the positron field configuration is unstable. 

The positron size has not been described (?), but it could perhaps be close to the size expected for a particle of this mass in accordance with "wave-particle equivalence", i.e. ~1,840x larger than nucleons?