Electrons
A new understanding of the nature of electrons is developed from the Subtle Atomics "wave-particle equivalence" principle. Similar to classical models (Uhenbeck and Goudsmit, 1925, Mills, 2016), electrons are recognised as spherical/ellipsoidal electro-magnetic wave shell structures much larger than the nucleus.  The new model contrasts with traditional/quantum approaches that typically identify electrons as "point particles" in spherical orbits.


Based on "wave-particle equivalence", particle sizes are expected to be directly related to mass, with more massive (higher energy) particles being smaller, and less massive (lower energy) particles being larger.

According to "wave-particle equivalence", electrons would be expected to be are around 1,836 times larger than protons. This is defined as the 'primary electron'. The actual observed size of electron orbitals varies considerably. Under terrestrial conditions (i.e. on earth) electrons are typically much larger than the 'primary electron' size, for example the atomic hydrogen Bohr radius (~53,000fm) is around 32x the "wave-particle" equivalence radius (~1,600fm). In the new model observed electron sizes are considered to be quantised resonances of the primary electron.

Electron excited states are one example of quantised variations in electron size. The new model redefines electron excited state resonance sizes based on as exponential rather than a linear relationship, for example:

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"The Subtle Atomic model identifies a varying electromagnetic distribution that is at it's maximum at the "radius", in contrast with the Mills model that proposes a thin continuous shell of charge."

Excited state radius (n)   =    Ground state radius (n=1) x 2^n,   where n is an integer, (i.e. Rydberg 'n' value). 
The new model is also consistent with previous proposals that recognise below ground state electron resonances (i.e. de-excited states). 


Nucleus
Nucleus
Nucleus
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Electron ground state, n=1
First excited state, n=2 
First de-excited state, n=1/2
Twice the number of osscilations/rotation
Half the number of osscillations/rotation
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Have de-excited electrons been observed?

Experimental evidence of de-excited electron states was perhaps was first reported in 1991, by Bush et alia, following theoretical proposal by R. Mills in around 1986.

If below ground state electrons are possible, why don't electrons transition to these states under "normal" conditions?

To understand why most electrons are at ground state requires a recognition of an interaction between background energy and mass. In the new model, particles, including electrons, can continually absorb background energy, transitioning to higher and higher quantised energy states.  Ground state represents the last stable electron state that does not spontaneously decay by photon emission, so most electrons are found in this state.
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Positrons


The positron is an example of a particle with similar mass to an electron (~511KeV), but displaying "positive" rather than "negative" behaviour in response to an electric field.  

The observed difference in "charge" behaviour is expected to be due to a different electromagnetic field configuration compared to the electron.  For example the positron field may be more toroidal compared to the electron field which is expected to be more spherical.

The existance of electrons rather than positrons under normal conditions is  consistent with the electro-magnetic field configuration being more stable that the positron field configuration at ground state.


For different electron resonances, the positive rather than negative electro-magnetic configuration may be more stable. 

Electron states such as the primary and/or subprimary states could potentially have a positive electro-magnetic configuration, so could actually be equivalent to previously observed positrons!!!

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